Traditionally, it has been taught that children and adolescents rarely experience back pain and when they do, significant underlying pathology is often present and aggressive investigation is necessary to determine the cause.
Although there are several muscular dystrophies in childhood, three types are seen with some degree of regularity: progressive muscular dystrophy; limb-girdle dystrophy; and facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy.
“Pulled elbow” is most commonly seen in children between one and five years of age. It occurs following an injury sustained in which the child’s forearmor hand is being held and the child attempts to fall away, or is lifted from the ground by the hands.
In addition to the far more common congenital muscular torticollis, there is a type of torticollis or “wryneck” that appears in the toddler to adolescent age group that is associated with either inflammatory conditions in the cervical region, traumatic lesions, tumors or neurogenic disorders.